SIR Printing and Photocopying 1556 Lonsdale Ave, North Vancouver, BC
1556 Lonsdale Ave, North Vancouver        Phone: 604-980-3860
Glossary
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Glossary of Art and Print Terms
A
AAProofing symbol - Indicates a change to the original copy that is not a typesetting error.
accentMarks used to indicate stress either preceding or following a syllable used in languages other than English.
agateOriginally the name of 5-1/2 point type the term is now used mostly for calculations in newspaper space. (14 agate lines = one inch)
align/alignmentIndicates placement either with respect to another object or within a given space.
alleySpace between two columns of type
alphabet lengthIndicates the length of the entire lower-case character set placed back to back. Used as a quick estimate when type fitting.
alpha-numericRefers to the set of characters that is either a letter or a number.
alternate characterNon-standard character provided with some typefaces that allows more than one choice for any given character.
ampersandThe '&' symbol sometimes used as an abreviation for the word 'and'.
antique finishRandom rough surface on paper.
arabic numberThe digits 0 to 9. (as opposed to Roman Numerals I,II,III,IV)
artworkUsually refers to the source material used to make-up a piece including graphics, typefaces, body text, and any other media used.
ascending letterAny letter having letter strokes above the x-height. (2,P,d)
author's alterationsSee AA
author's proofProof for author after typesetting and correcting any typesetting errors.
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B
back matterMaterial paced at the end of a book including ppendix, glossary etc.
bad breakRefers to a poorly positioned line or paragraph break occuring most often in justified text.
bannerHeader running either accross or down the side of a page. Wide streamers often used for advertising.
baselineThe imaginary horizontal line running along the bottom of capital letters. (bottom of x-height)
bastard titleA title only page found in some books before the full title page. (sometimes refered to as a half-title)
b/b or b to bAbbreviation for baseline to baseline. (used to indicate line spacing)
bfProofer's mark indicating boldface
bindingThe process of fastening pages together to create a book, pamphlet, or booklet. (Cerlox, coil, stitched, stapled etc.)
Black-letterApplied to early typefaces designed to look like early German handwriting. Often referred to as Old English
BleedPrinted area such as a photograph or tint allowed to run off the edge of the trimmed sheet
Blind embossingStamped design incorporating no color; a bas-relief. See Embossing
Block quoteSee Extract
BlowupPhotographic enlargement
BluePre-press proof printed in blue; submitted by offset printer and made by exposing negatives against sensitized paper Also called vandykes when printed in brown. See Saltprint
Bodoni dashAlso called a tapered dash. Thicker in the center and thinner on ends
Body typeTypeset text or copy, usually ranging from 6- to 14-point type, used as reading matter and set in one face. Compare Display type
BoldfaceHeavier-weight version of a typeface; indicated by proofreader's mark (bf)
Bond paperHigh-quality paper usually used for letterhead and business forms and having strength and durability
BorderPlain or ornamental frame around any typographic element. Boxed. Frame around type element, either “open” with rules top and bottom only, or on all four sides
Box headColumn heading enclosed in rules
Brace or bracketCharacters used in pairs to embrace type and available in many sizes, both plain and ornamental. Braces: } Brackets: [
Brady's Golden Rule“Space together those things that go together.” All elements that relate to each other must be shown to do so visually
BreakPlace where division is made, such as ending of line, division of type column
BreakoutMaterial pulled from text and displayed as quotation in larger or bolder type for emphasis. Also called pull-quote
BrightnessThe brilliance of a sheet of printing paper; its light-reflecting quality
BroadsideLarge sheet of paper, commonly printed on one side, sometimes folded. Often used for advertising circulars
BulkingDegree of paper thickness
BulletType character, usually round, used to draw attention, particularly in lists
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C
California Job CaseCase for handset type, holding both upper and lowercase characters, plus figures, spaces, and related characters
Calligraphic typeTypefaces based on styles of handwriting, such as Slogan, Legend, Brush
CalloutLabel used on illustration, sometimes with a line pointing to specific portion of illustration
Camera readyMaterial ready to be photographed. See Mechanical. Cap height. Actual height of capital letter, as opposed to its point size. Sometimes used in type specifications. See Type size
CapitalLarge letters of the alphabet, also termed caps, uppercase and, anciently, majuscules
Caps and small capsTwo sizes of matching capitals made in one size of type, available with many fonts. Small caps are the same height as the lower case “x.” Abbreviated as c/sc
CaptionA title and/or a short explanation or description adjacent to an illustration or photograph. See Legend and Cutlines
CaretMark ^A used by copyeditors and proofreaders to indicate where material is to be inserted
Casting offEstimating the space typewritten copy will occupy when set in a specific size typeface
Chapter headDisplay heading appearing at the beginning of a chapter
CharacterA letter of the alphabet, number, punctuation mark, etc. Also, the quality inherent in design of each typeface and projected to reader
Character countAverage number of type characters in a line, page, manuscript, publication, etc.
Characters-per-picaAverage number of characters that will fit in one pica for individual typefaces; used to calculate the length copy will be when set in a given typeface
CircularA printed advertisement-booklet, leaflet, or letter-distributed to a large number of persons
Clip artIllustrative material which can be purchased and used by “clipping” from supplied camera-ready material. Also termed stock art. Some types available on floppy diskette
Close spacingThin spacing between words
Close upTo reduce space between graphic elements, such as type lines
Coated paperPapers with surface coatings that produce ultra smooth finishes, ranging from matte to super-glossy
Cold typeComposition achieved by direct impression, such as a typewriter or a word processor-printer combination. Sometimes called “strike-on” composition. See Hot type
ColourSee Weight
Colour separationSeparation of colour original into the four primary printing colour components: yellow, red (magenta), blue (cyan), black
Column ruleLine used to separate columns of type
CompositionTypesetting
Comprehensive layoutA “comp” - carefully prepared layout or dummy finished to closely approximate the look of the planned printed piece. Computerized typesetting. General term for typesetting that uses computers to automatically hyphenate, justify, and do page formatting
Condensed typeA typeface thinner than normal, often prepared as a variation of a standard face. Compare Expanded type
Continuous toneAny illustration or photograph containing varied tones, either shades of grey from black to white, or colour Continuous tone art must be converted to halftone screens before printing
ContourType set to wrap around another element or create an unusual shape. Also called run-around
CopyText, usually typewritten or computer produced, from which type is to be composed. Also, general term for text
CopyfittingDetermining the space a given amount of copy will fill when set in a specific typeface and size. Also, selecting or adjusting typeface and size to fit a predetermined space
Copy preparationEditing copy to insure all style and other typographic directions are indicated properly before typesetting
CounterOpening within a type character
Cover paper, or stockHeavier weight stock used for covers of booklets, catalogues, and similar items; often available with matching text paper
CromalinsBrand name for full-colour proofs made before printing from special positive film
CropTo mark for removal, or to remove, unwanted portions of a photograph or illustration
CursiveA type that imitates handwriting, such as Bernhard Cursive. Cut-in head. Heading set into text, either partly or entirely
CutlineShort description or explanation adjacent to an illustration or photograph, other than a title or heading. Usually used in reference to newspapers. Also see Legend and Caption
Cut-off rulePrinted line used to separate advertisements from news items or other elements. Also called advertising rule
CyanThe blue primary color used in four colour process printing
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D
DaggerSingle (t) and double (*) reference marks
DebossedDepressed (recessed) design, the opposite of embossed (raised)
Decide edgeUntrimmed feathery edges of paper, available on some grades of paper and cover stock
DeleteProofreader's mark meaning to eliminate designated item
Descending letterLetter stroke that extends below baseline, such as p, y, j
DiacriticMark used to indicate accent or pronunciation
Die-stampingPrinting, often letterheads and business cards, from designs engraved into copper or steel plates
Digital (digitized) typesettingTypesetting system where characters are translated into a collection of tiny dots or lines that can be stored in computer memory as binary codes. Image quality is determined by density of strokes or scan lines per inch as reproduced on cathode ray tube, prior to transfer to film or paper
DingbatAny small printer's ornament, such as a floret
Display typeGeneral term for type set larger than surrounding text (usually 14-point or larger) as in headings or advertisements
Double-truckTwo facing pages, designed as a single unit. Also called spread
Down styleStyle of headline with only the first word and proper nouns capitalized
Drop capAnother term for initial cap
Drop-outSection of mechanicals or art, such as background areas or guide lines, often designed so they will not print
Dropped-out typeType reversed into a background, e.g., white letters with a black background
DummyPreliminary layout prepared to show position of illustrations and text as they will appear in the final reproduction. Also, set of blank pages, perhaps of a booklet, made up to show size, shape, and specific paper stock
DuotoneA two-colour halftone made from a one-colour photograph
DupeA duplicate negative. Also duplicate proof, slide, or other item
Duplex paperPaper having different colour or finish on each side
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E
EliteStandard typewriter type having 12 characters per inch
EllipsisThree periods (. . .) used to indicate an omission of words or a pause
EmA unit of measurement that is as wide and as tall as the typeface being set. In 12-point type, the em is 12 points wide and 12 points high
Em spaceA fixed amount of white space equal to one em. Also called em quad
Embossed finishPapers having raised surfaces, often to simulate linen, wood, or leather finish, for example
EmbossingSpecial process to create raised image on the surface of the paper. See Blind embossing
EnUnit of measurement that is one-half the width of an em
Expanded or extended typeA typeface whose characters are wider than usual, often a wider version of a regular face
ExtractA quotation typographically set off from main body of text. Also called block quote. Sometimes referred to as pull-quote
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F
FaceOriginally the printing surface of metal type, now another term for typeface
FamilySee Type family
Felt sideThe smoother, or top, side of a sheet of paper
Fixed spacingUniform word spacing throughout a block of type
F/LFlush left
Flag1. Newspaper masthead, containing staff information. 2. Note attached to manuscript page with editor's queries to author
FlatThe assembled film negatives or positives, ready for offset platemaking. Also, an adjective describing an item lacking in contrast, such as a photograph
FlopTo reverse negative, giving mirror-image reversal of photograph or other item
FloretFlower- or leaf-shaped type ornament
Flush left or rightTypeset lines that align vertically, either left or right, and are uneven on the other end
Flush paragraphParagraph having no indentation. Folio. Page number
Follow copyInstruction to set type exactly as it appears in the copy, in every detail
FontComplete assortment of type of one face and one size, including upper and lowercase letters, punctuation, numerals
FootnoteReference or explanatory material placed at bottom of type page, usually preceded by reference mark keyed to same reference mark in text
ForewordIntroductory statement by author or other person
FormatThe size, shape, form, proportions, margins, and overall design of a printed item
Foundry typeType cast in complete fonts in a foundry using more durable typemetal, as contrasted with individual, hot-type characters cast on a Monotype
Four-colour pressA press that prints four wet colours in a single pass
F/LFlush right
Free-standing insertPrinted material inserted into a magazine or newspaper that is not attached
Front matterAll material preceding the main text of a book
Full measureType set to fill full line length, flush at both ends
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G
Galley proofProof of typeset material before being made up into pages
GothicStyle of plain typeface usually having just one weight of line. Example: News Gothic. Also, sometimes used to refer to black-letter typefaces. The term is confusing because it's used for two different type styles
GrainThe direction in which most paper fibbers lie, corresponding to the direction the fibbers point when still wet on a paper machine
GravurePrinting process using etched plates with intaglio (sunken or depressed) printing images. Provides excellent colour reproduction; expensive
Grease pencilA pencil with a wax like base. Markings can be easily removed with tissue. Used to mark photographs, etc. Also called china marker
GreekingNonsense text used to simulate actual text placement and size during planning stages
GridSeries of lines in non reproducible blue ink printed on paste-up board indicating placement of text and illustrations. The grid dictates such considerations as column width and margins
GutterInner margins between type and binding
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H
HairlineTerm for very fine or delicate line, the finest printer's rule
Hairline registerRegister within one-half row of dots; in general, very close register
Half titleSee Bastard title
HalftoneContinuous-tone art (a photograph, for example) converted into dots of various sizes for reproduction
H &J Hyphenate and justifyComputer function that creates type with even edges on both the left and right
Hanging figuresSee Old-style figures
Hanging indentationFirst line of paragraph set full length and all following lines indented
Hanging punctuationPunctuation set in margins, outside of justified line length, so that text aligns optically
Hanging quoteOpening quote mark placed in left margin beyond justified line length
Hard copyPrinted copy of text stored in computer memory. Often used as a permanent visual record. Also, typewritten material sent to composing house for typesetting
Head or headingDisplay line usually set in a larger size or different typeface than text, summarizing text below and used to draw attention
HeadlineTitle or caption of a newspaper article, usually set in display type
Head marginWhite space above first type line appearing on page
Holding lineSee Keyline
Hot metal or typeType set by using molten metal to form either individual letters (Monotype) or a complete line of letters (Linotype, Ludlow). Becoming outdated as phototypesetting gains popularity
House styleRules governing punctuation, spelling, spacing, etc., set up by publisher to insure consistent usage
Hung initialInitial letter set in left-hand margin, in whole or in part. Hyphenate and justify. See H & J
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I
ImpositionPositioning of pages during printing so that after printing and folding pages are in consecutive order. See Signature
IndentPlacing space before or after words in type line (example, paragraph indent)
IndexAlphabetized listing of names, places, and subjects included in a printed work, giving the page number on which each item is mentioned
Inferior characterSmall character placed below baseline, as in a chemical formula: H2O. Also, subscript
Initial capThe first text letter set larger than remaining text and either plain or decorated. Used for emphasis or design. Also called drop cap
InlineA type letter with a white line, such as Goudy Handtooled. Insert. An item, usually printed, placed in a publication, either bound, tipped in, or free standing. Also, additional material added to a manuscript. Italic. Slanted letters, as distinct from roman letters, used for emphasis and other purposes. Often abbreviated as ital
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J
Jump headHeadline over news story continued from a preceding page
JustifySet type so that all lines are the same length creating even edges on both the left and right. Compare Ragged left, Ragged right
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K
KerningSubtracting space between certain combinations of type characters to tighten fit and improve appearance. Done on case-by-case basis according to need. Compare Minusing
KeyTo use letters or symbols to code copy to a layout. Similar methods are used to indicate text insertions, etc.
Keyline1. Outline on mechanical to indicate shape and position of artwork or photographs. Also called holding lines. 2. Entire mechanical. 3. Process of pasting up elements on mechanical
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L
LacquerA clear coating (gloss or dull) applied to a printed sheet to enhance image, or for protection
Laid paperPaper showing a pattern of parallel lines to simulate the pattern created by screens in handmade paper Unlined paper is referred to as wove paper
LayoutThe plan or design of a proposed printed piece showing how all elements will be arranged
LeadersSeries of dots, dashes, or periods used to “lead” the eye across the page from one type column to another. See Open leaders
Leading (ledding)The distance between type lines, measured in points from the baseline of one line of type to the baseline of the next line. Also, Linespacing
LeafAs bound in a book, a single sheet of paper, each side of which is a page. Leaflet. A single sheet, sometimes folded, but not bound
LegendWords under illustration, briefly describing it. Also, see Cutline, Caption
LegibilityRelated to speed with which each letter or word can be recognized
LetterpressPrinting from raised blocks or type. Ink is spread on the raised surface and paper is pressed against it to form the image
LettersetA dry offset printing process using a relief plate similar to that used in letterpress and requiring no dampening system
LetterspacingThe space between letters; can be increased or decreased to achieve special effects. Usually used to refer to the addition of space between letters
LigatureTwo or more typeface characters connected to form a single unit, as in ff
Line art or line drawingIllustration, such as pen and ink drawing, suitable for reproduction without using a halftone
Line length or measureLength of a type line, given in picas. Linespacing. See leading
Lining figuresFigures that align at the bottom, unlike old-style figures, which have ascenders and descenders
LinotypeA hot metal typesetting system that sets one line at a time
LithographyPrinting from a flat surface, where the image area is receptive to ink and the rest of the surface is not
LogotypeAlso called logo. The name, symbol, or trademark of a company or publication as a single design unit
Lowercase (lc)Small letters as distinguished from capitals; so termed because they were stored in the lower of the two wooden type cases used by hand compositors. Anciently, minuscule
LudlowA hot-metal typesetting machine used mainly for hand setting lines of display type and headlines
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M
MagentaIn four-color process, one of the primaries; red. Majuscule. Capital letter
MakereadyWork done to prepare press and printing plates or forms prior to running, such as setting paper feeder, grippers, side guide, filling and adjusting ink fountains, etc.
MakeupIn letterpress, arrangement of all elements-type, space, and illustrations-into final form for reproduction
MarginWhite space on all four sides of a printed page
MarkupPlacing all appropriate instructions on copy and layout to insure proper typesetting. Also “Spec”-ing
MastheadListing in newspaper, magazine, or other publication of information about staff, operation, date and volume number, address, etc. Also called flag
Mane finishCoated paper having dull finish, without gloss or luster
Matte printPhotoprint with dull finish
MeasureLength of a type line, given in picas
MechanicalAn assemblage or pasteup on art board of all elements needed to create printed item. Photographed to create printing plate
MinusculeSmall or lowercase letter
MinusingDecreasing space between type characters. Also called squeezing and tracking. Done throughout text rather than on case-by-case basis. Compare Kerning
Modern romanTypefaces designed near end of 18th century, distinguished from old-style roman by greater regularity of shapes, more precise curves, vertical weight stress, and delicate hairlines and serifs. One example is Bodoni
MontagePhotographs or other items randomly arranged to create pleasing design. Elements used can be cut to various shapes, angled, overlapped, or variously treated
MottledSpotty or uneven appearance of inked surface, most easily seen in solid areas
Ms. Abbreviation for manuscriptPlural is mss
Mutt or mutton quadSubstitute term for em space, to avoid confusion with en space when spoken
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N
NameplateType treatment of the newspaper or newsletter name, usually displayed at the top of page one. Also called banner
NegativeFilm containing reverse image; dark areas appear light and light, dark
NewsprintPaper used mostly for printing newspapers
Nonrepro blueA light blue colour that is not picked up by the reproductive camera. Used to mark corrections on mechanicals
Nut quadSubstitute term for en space, to avoid confusion with spoken word em
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O
Oblong bindingBound on the shorter side
OffsetShort for offset lithography. Printing process in which inked image is first transferred (offset) from a plate cylinder to a blanket cylinder, then from the blanket to paper. See also Lithography
Old EnglishA black-letter typeface based on 13th-century German writing styles
Old-styleType style developed in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Bold strokes of uniform thickness and rounded or sloping serfs. Caslon is one example
Old-style figuresNumerals with ascenders and descenders. Also called hanging figures. Compare Lining figures
OpacityPaper property that minimizes the “show-through” of printed image either from back side or next sheet
Opaque inkInk that conceals colour over which it is printed
Open boxA box around type or other material formed by rules on top and bottom only rather than all four sides
Open leadersSometimes called dot leaders because widely spaced periods are placed in a line to lead the eye across the page
Open spacingWide spacing, as between lines of display type
OrnamentA small type decoration such as a floret or dingbat
OrphanSee Widow
OverlayClear plastic covering over mechanical holding additional material, usually in register
OverprintingPrinting over an area already printed. Overset. Type set but not used
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P
Page proofProof of completed type page
PaginationNumbering of pages in consecutive order. In computerized typesetting, automatic page make-up
PamphletAn unbound printed folder or brochure
Paragraph markAn editing mark (ķ) used to indicate the beginning of a new paragraph. Really the cap letter P, reversed. Paragraphs sometimes are indicated like this: New paragraph begins here
Paste-upProcess of arranging type and illustrations on art board in preparation for printing. Also used to refer to mechanicals
PEPrinter's error. Used by proofreaders to designate a mistake made in typesetting
Perfect bindingA method of binding, without stitching or sewing, in which the pages are held together by a flexible adhesive
PhotogravureSee Gravure
PhotostatBrand name for photocopying process. Also used generically to refer to any economically reproduced photographs or line art, often enlarged or reduced, and often used for layouts and dummies, cropped, to show size and position. Commonly referred to as stats
Phototypesetting or photocompositionA method of setting type photographically
Pica1. A unit of measure used in typesetting. Approximately 1/6th of an inch. Compare Point. 2. Typewriter type providing ten characters per inch
Pi characterSpecial typeface character such as accent mark not usually included in a standard type font, but available when required to be inserted by compositor
Point Unit of type measurementOne point is approximately equal to 1/72nd of an inch. Twelve points equal one pica
Point sizeSee Type size
PositiveFilm with light and dark values the same as original. See Negative. Pre-press proof. Proof, such as saltprint, created by a variety of prepress means, thus saving money and time
Press proofProof made on press prior to production run
Press typeAlphabets on a clear plastic sheet in a wide range of typefaces, plus rules, borders and ornaments, etc., which can be transferred by rubbing. Also called transfer or rub-down type
Process coloursInks used in process printing to create the full range of colours. In four-colour printing they are yellow, magenta (red), cyan (blue), and black
Process printingPrinting where two or more colours of ink are used to create intermediate colours Filters are used to separate colour illustrations into the primary colours, then during printing one colour of transparent ink is printed on top of another to re-create the effect of full colour. See Process colours.
Progressive proofCommonly termed “prog.” Proof of colour process work showing each colour in sequence. Example: Proof of yellow plate, proof of magenta plate, then proof of yellow overprinted with magenta, etc.
ProofTrial sheet of printed material (prepared a number of ways) for comparison against original and on which corrections are made
ProofreaderPerson who checks typeset galleys against manuscript for mistakes
Proofreader's markGraphic instruction made by proofreader to indicate typesetter's errors
Proportional spacingEach letter has its own width, i.e., larger for letters such as M or w; smaller for characters such as I or 1
Pull-quoteWords “pulled” from text and displayed as quotation
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Q
QuadSpace in typeset copy. Originally, metal pieces used to create space in hot type. Can also be used as a direction: quad (space) right, quad (space) left. etc.
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R
Rag contentIndication of good paper quality. Twenty-five percent is common for business stationery
Ragged centerType set with each line centered.
Ragged leftType set with the right margin even and the left margin uneven.
Ragged rightType set with the left margin even and the right margin uneven.
Raised initialInitial letter projecting above first line of text type. Also called stick-up or stand-up initial.
ReadabilityRelative ease with which a printed page can be read.
Recto.Right-hand, odd-numbered pages in book. Page one is always a righthand page. Opposite to verso.
Reference markMark used to indicate footnotes, such as asterisk or dagger. Register. Placing one image in exact alignment with another during printing. Often done so that the two images form one when printed.
Register marksCrosses or other marks placed on mechanicals, art, overlays, and plates to insure proper positioning.
Relief printingAnother term for letterpress. So called because printing surface is raised above non-printing areas, forming a relief
Reproduction proofA type proof that is camera ready. Also referred to as repro or repro proof
Reversal illustrationAchieved by flopping negative so image will face left rather than right, or vice versa.
Reversed typeSee Dropped-out type.
Revised proofProof taken after corrections are made. Also called second proof
RiverAn irregular pattern of white space running through several successive lines of text. Considered undesirable.
RLRagged left.
Roman numeralNumeral from an ancient Roman counting system based on the characters I, V, X, L, C, D, and M.
Roman type1. Type that is upright, as opposed to italic. 2. Type based on ancient Roman lettering. Features upright letters, variable width elements, and letter strokes ending in serfs.
RotogravureSee Gravure.
RoughPreliminary layout or sketch meant to give general effect.
RRRagged right.
Rubber cementUsed to affix material to mechanicals. See Wax and Spray Mount.
RuleLine used for borders, boxes, and many other purposes, varying in design and thickness, usually specified in points.
Rule boxType or other material enclosed on all four sides by a rule. See Open box.
Run-aroundType lines set to fit around illustration or other element of the design. Also called contour or wrap-around.
Run-in headHeading set into first text line, usually set in larger size, bold, italic, or otherwise displayed.
Running headA headline or title repeated on each page, usually at the top, sometimes includes folio.
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S
Saddle stitch (wire)To bind a booklet or pamphlet by inserting wire stitches through the middle fold of the sheets.
SaltprintsCommon term for all prepress proofs made by exposing negatives against sensitized paper. See Vandyke, Blue.
Sans serifLetterforms without serfs and usually having a single thickness of line.
ScalingDetermining the proper size of an image to be reduced or enlarged to fit given area.
ScannerElectronic device used to produce colour and tone-corrected colour separations.
ScreenA pattern of dots or lines used to reproduce continuous tone illustrations such as photographs or to create an illusion of tone. Screens are measured in numbers of lines per inch; in general, the larger number of lines per inch, the better the reproduction quality.
Screened printA print containing a halftone screen. See Velox. Script. Typefaces based on handwritten letters. Example: Commercial Script.
Second proof, or galleyProof taken after corrections are made. Serif. Ending strokes of characters; short cross lines at the ends of main strokes.
Set-in initialLarge initial letter indented into text. Also termed cut-in initial.
Set-offInk from one printed sheet rubbing off, marking the next sheet. Also called offsetting.
ShadowmarkEconomical substitute for watermark. Applied to paper after manufacture; can be in fixed position on stationery.
Show-throughPrinting on the reverse side of sheet that can be seen through the sheet under normal viewing conditions.
Side headA heading set to one side of the type page or column. A heading cut into the outer margin of text, wholly or partially, is termed a cut-in side heading.
Side wire (stitch)To wire or stitch the sheets or signatures of a book or pamphlet on the side, close to the backbone. Compare Saddle stitch. Signature. A sheet on which several pages have been printed. After it has been folded, contents appear in correct sequence. Signatures commonly contain 12, 16, 32, or 64 pages.
SilhouetteAn illustration with all background removed.
SinkThe first line of text is lower on the page than standard, as on chapter openings.
Slash mark. A diagonal mark (I) used to separate alternatives, as in and/or; to represent the wordper, as in miles/hour; and to indicate the ends of verse lines printed continuously. Also called virgule.
SlugA strip of metal used for spacing letterpress material, usually 6-, 12-, 18-, or 24-points in thickness. Also, a heading used to identify an article or department in a magazine.
Small capsSmaller capital letters provided with many fonts. The size of the x-height, they usually are used in combination with the regular capitals.
Solid1. Large inked area. 2. Type set without extra leading.
Space outInserting space between words or letters to make line fill predetermined length.
SpecShort for type specifications. Plural form sometimes written as spex. Also used as verb meaning to mark copy for typesetting, indicating size, typeface, etc.
SpineThe part of the binding that connects the two covers. Also called backbone.
Spiral bindingMethod of binding in which a continuous piece of wire or plastic in spiral form is inserted through holes punched along the binding edge.
Spray MountBrand of spray adhesive commonly used in preparing mechanicals. Often used generically to indicate any brand of spray adhesive. Squeeze. Set text with less than normal spacing between characters. Also see Minusing, Tracking.
Stand-up initialInitial letter inserted only in first line of text. Also stick-up capital.
StaplingInsertion of wire staples for binding. See Side wire and Saddle stitch.
StatSee Photostat.
StemThe main upright stroke of a letter.
StetTerm used by copyeditors and proofreaders meaning "Let the original stand."
StockPaper or other material to receive printed image.
Stock artAnother term for clip art.
Strike-on compositionPrepared by direct impression, such as a typewriter.
StrippingPositioning negatives or positives in preparation for making offset printing plate.
SubheadSecondary headline or title.
SubscriptUndersized characters (3) placed below baseline, usually for reference purposes. Also called Inferior characters.
Sunken initialAn initial letter indented into text so that its top aligns with top of ascending letters of first type line.
Superior characterUndersized character (3) placed at top of type line, often for footnote reference. Also called superscript.
Swash letterItalic capital letter with flourishes finished with some fonts as alternate characters.
Swatch bookBook containing sample sheets of paper stock showing choices of weights, sizes, and finishes.
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T
TabloidSmall size newspaper, about half the size of standard newspaper. Sometimes called tab. Sheets measuring 11” x 17”.
TextThe main body matter of a page or book, usually under 14-point, as distinguished from headings, titles, etc.
Text paperUsed for much commercial printing; usually supplied in 25" x 38" size, featuring a wide variety of colours and surfaces.
Thin spaceAny space thinner than a 3-to-the-em space. Usually 1/4 or 1/5 of an em space.
Thumbnail sketchesSmall sketches made by graphic artist to show varied approaches to a layout or design.
TmtA light shade of colour, usually achieved by screening.
Tip-inAn illustration or other item pasted by hand, often at upper edge only, onto a book page.
Tissue layoutRough layout on tissue prepared before typesetting to show how design project will be handled. Often done as preliminary step to preparing comprehensive.
Tissue overlayThin, translucent paper covering mechanicals both for protection and to carry printing instructions.
Title pagePage in the front of a book listing the book title, author, and publisher.
TOCAbbreviation for Table of Contents. TR. See Transpose.
TrackingText type composed with different degrees of letterspacing. Also see Minusing, Squeezing, and Kerning.
Transfer typeSee Press type.
TransparencyUsed to refer to a photographic slide.
Transparent inkPrinting ink that does not conceal the colour over which it is printed. Process inks are transparent, thus permitting them to blend with other colours.
TransposeTo exchange the position of a letter, word, or item with another Indicated on proofs with tr or the proofing symbol
Trim marksMarks placed on the mechanical to indicate the edge of the page; a guide for final cutting.
Trim sizeThe size of the finished item after the paper has been trimmed.
TypefaceA particular style of type design including the full range of characters, in all sizes.
Type familyAll the variations of a specific typeface design, such as italic, bold, extra bold, condensed, etc.
Type highThe height of letterpress type. In U.s. .918 inch.
Type sizeThe size of type, measured in points. Originally, the point size referred to the piece of metal the type image was on, not to the size of the typeface itself Now used as an approximate indication of the size of the typeface itself. For example, a 10-point typeface is ordinarily cast (in metal) on a 10point body. While all 10-point typefaces are roughly the same size, there often is variation between faces. Also referred to as point size. (see page 45.)
Typewriter typeTypeface that imitates letters produced on a typewriter. Typo. Typographical error.
TypographyThe art and technique of working with type elements, regardless of the process used to create them.
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U
U&LCAbbreviation for capitals (uppercase) and lowercase letters.
UncialTypeface having the special characteristics of handwritten letters, based on early Latin manuscripts. Example: Unciāla.
UppercaseCapital letters, originally stored in the upper of the two cases from which a compositor set type by hand.
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V
Vandyke proofProofs brown in colour; also called brownlines.
VarnishA gloss or dull coating applied to printed sheet (or spot sections) to protect and improve appearance. Often applied on press.
Vellum finishA toothy finish on paper, relatively absorbent to provide fast ink penetration.
Velox printA photographic paper print made from screen negative. Two-sidedness Paper having difference in appearance and printability between its top (felt) and wire sides.
VersoLeft-hand page, always even number, as opposed to recto, or right-hand page.
VirguleSee Slash mark.
Visual signalAuthor's term for anything associated with a printed page that visually imparts a message to the reader.
Visual spacingAdding or subtracting white space between type characters (or other elements), based on visual judgment.
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W
WatermarkA design created during paper manufacture that is visible when held up to light. Paper having a custom watermark can be obtained for uses such as personal stationery. See Shadowmark.
WaxMelted wax used to mount materials on art board when preparing mechanicals. Special rubber cement and spray adhesive are also used. Web press. Press which prints from rolls of paper.
WeightThe degree of darkness-from black to grey-projected by a page or column of text type. Also called colour.
WfSee Wrong font.
Wbite printPositive duplicate of printer's negatives made on plastic sheet.
Widow1. A line of type (usually the last line ofa paragraph) that is markedly shorter than full measure, usually two words or less. 2. A short line of type that falls at the top of a column or page. Also called orphan. Usually considered undesirable.
Wire sideOn paper, produced by being next to wire during manufacture. The opposite from felt (top) side.
With the grainPrinting on or folding paper so work is parallel to the grain. Wood type. Type made from wood, usually of large size, often used for posters, signs, etc. Measured in multiples of picas, designated as lines; i.e., 4-line (48-point), 10-line (120-point).
Word spacingThe amount of white space between words, normally 1/3 of an em for text, en space for capitals.
Wove paperPaper having uniform unlined surface and soft smooth finish. Compare Laid paper.
Wrap-around typeType lines adjusted to fit around a picture or other irregular-shaped graphic element.
Wrong fontLetter or character set in the wrong size or face in typeset material, marked “wf” by proofreader.
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X
XUsed in type specifications to indicate extra, as in Bodoni X Bold.
X-ActoBrand of small, sharp knife commonly used in paste-up. Often used generically to indicate any such knife.
X-heightHeight of the body of lowercase letters, not counting ascenders and descenders.
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Y
Term Definition
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Z
Term Definition
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